2013년 1월 25일 "신용장 분쟁사례"를 신간으로 출간하였다.

이 책은 현행 UCP 600의 번역 및 축조해설과 함께 신용장 분쟁사례들을 ICC 은행위원회의 의견 및 국내외 법원의 판례에 기초하여 가장 핵심적이고 신용장거래 실무상 중요한 분쟁사례 및 쟁점 사항들을 문답식으로 엮어 UCP 600 조항과 연계시켜 검토하였다.

따라서 이 책은 은행이나 무역업계에는 신용장결제분쟁 예방 및 해결 지침서로, 대학생 및 대학원생에게는 신용장결제분쟁 사례연구서로 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

강원진/신용장 분쟁사례/도서출판 두남(전화: 02-478-2065)/4*6배판, 598쪽

C․O․N․T․E․N․T․S

― Chapter 1 신용장통일규칙의 적용 및 용어의 정의 ·························15

제1조 신용장통일규칙(UCP 600)의 적용························· 17

Case 01-01 비은행이 발행한 신용장 통지의 인정 여부······························19

Case 01-02 UCP 준거문언이 없는 신용장의 경우 UCP 적용 여부··············22

Case 01-03 UCP 600과 모순 또는 불일치되는 경우 신용장에 수정 또는

배제의 문언을 명시해야 하는지 여부 ·······································24

Case 01-04 보증신용장에 따라 제시된 미지급 송장사본의 심사 ·················27

Case 01-05 자신의 은행지점 상호간 보증신용장 발행가능 여부·················29

Case 01-06 보증신용장의 발행의뢰인과 발행은행 사이의 법률관계············30

제2조 정의················································33

Case 01-07 은행영업일이 아닌 일자에 서류 수령시 은행영업일 인정 여부····41

Case 01-08 은행의 일치성 판단을 위한 은행영업시간의 해석 기준············43

Case 01-09 “일치하는 제시” 여부가 국제표준은행관행에 의하여

결정된다는 의미······································································44

Case 01-10 UCP 600의 제2조에서 정한 “매입”의 의미·······························46

Case 01-11 연지급신용장의 만기 전에 지급이행된 경우 재매입약정의

적용 여부················································································47

제3조 해석················································50

Case 01-12 증명(certified) 대신 공인(legalized)이라고 명시된 서류의

일치성 ·····················································································54

Case 01-13 국내 상업회의소의 원산지증명서 발행요구의 경우 국내의 의미·····56

Case 01-14 선화증권발행 일자에 사용된 “from”이 발행일에 포함되는지

여부·························································································57

― Chapter 2 신용장의 독립･추상성 ·····················································59

제4조 신용장과 계약·········································61

Case 02-01 신용장 물품명세란의 참조사항도 은행이 검토해야 하는지

여부·························································································63

제5조 서류와 물품, 서비스 또는 이행···························66

Case 02-02 근거계약 위반의 경우 이미 지급금액에 대한 반환 청구가능 여부···69

Case 02-03 UCP는 서류작성 또는 물품규제 관련 개별국가 또는 종교적인

요구사항을 인정할 수 있는지 여부 ········································71

Case 02-04 위조서류 매입은행의 독립･추상성의 원칙에 의한 보호 범위····73

Case 02-05 적법한 매입이 아닌 경우 발행은행의 신용장대금 지급거절의

타당성 여부·············································································74

Case 02-06 지급금지명령 신청이 재판관할권 위반 및 재량권남용에

해당되는지 여부······································································75

Case 02-07 근거계약상의 사기에 대한 발행의뢰인의 지급금지명령 신청····78

Case 02-08 중대한 사기의 기준과 적용효과···············································80

Case 02-09 서류의 위조 또는 수익자의 중대한 사기의 청구와 효과··········85

― Chapter3 신용장의 사용, 발행은행 및 확인은행의 확약 ····················89

제6조 사용가능성, 유효기일 및 제시장소·························91

Case 03-01 신용장 사용가능한 장소 및 유효기일이 명시된 경우

다른 장소의 은행에서의 사용가능성 ·······································95

Case 03-02 모든 은행 또는 지정은행에서 인수에 의하여 사용가능시

환어음 지급인의 결정······························································96

Case 03-03 발행은행을 지급인으로 작성한 환어음을 지정은행이

인수할 수 있는지 여부 ····························································98

Case 03-04 한국 법인인 매입은행과 발행은행 사이의 환어음 인수와

관련하여 한국 어음법이 준거법이 될 수 있는지 여부 ··············99

Case 03-05 연지급신용장에서 지정은행으로 지정된 경우

매입대상이 되는지 여부·························································101

제7조 발행은행의 확약······································102

Case 03-06 인수 및 연지급 신용장의 만기일 연장시에도 모든 권리 및

보호장치가 연장 적용되는지 여부··········································105

Case 03-07 발행의뢰인 지급인 환어음의 경우 발행의뢰인 명의로

발행은행이 환어음 인수가능한지 여부···································107

Case 03-08 환어음 인수는 반드시 수기로 직접 하여야 하는지 여부·········109

Case 03-09 신용장발행은행이 선행 매입은행에 대한 상환을 내세워

후행 매입은행의 상환청구의 거절가능 여부 ···························110

Case 03-10 발행은행과 매입은행간 신용장대금 상환에 따른

법률관계의 준거법·································································114

Case 03-11 서류에 대한 대가지급이 연지급신용장의 만기 전에

이루어진 경우 재매입약정의 적용 여부·································115

Case 03-12 연지급신용장의 지급이나 매입을 위한 은행지정 또는

수권 여부에 대한 판단 ··························································117

제8조 확인은행의 확약······································119

Case 03-13 불일치를 간과하여 매입한 확인은행의 수익자에 대한

상환청구권·············································································122

Case 03-14 불일치서류를 확인은행에 제시하는 경우 확약의 효력 ··········125

Case 03-15 확인은행이 심사한 서류에 대하여 발행은행의 재심사의무가

있는지 여부 ·········································································127

Case 03-16 발행은행의 서류수리 거절이유를 내세워 이미 행한

확인은행의 매입 철회의 타당성 여부 ···································128

― Chapter 4 신용장 통지 및 조건변경 ···········································131

제9조 신용장 및 조건변경의 통지······························133

Case 04-01 신용장이 진정성 및 발행은행의 서명을 확인할 수 없을 경우

유효한 신용장인지 여부 ·······················································136

Case 04-02 신용장 조건을 부정확하게 통지한 통지은행의 책임부담·········138

제10조 조건변경············································141

Case 04-03 신용장 조건변경에 대한 수익자의 침묵이 동의로

볼 수 있는지 여부·································································144

Case 04-04 조건변경이 승낙되지 아니한 서류제시가 수익자의

조건변경에 대한 승낙을 구성하는지 여부······························145

Case 04-05 모호한 신용장 조건변경에 대한 위험부담자 ···························147

Case 04-06 정식 서면통지 이전에 받은 신용장의 조건변경의 효력 ·········149

Case 04-07 발행은행의 매입은행에 대한 부가조건 삭제 지시의 효력·······150

제11조 전송과 예비통지신용장 및 조건변경·······················153

Case 04-08 텔리팩스에 의한 신용장 발행의 법적 효력·····························155

Case 04-09 텔리팩스에 의하여 발행된 신용장의 안전성 ···························157

― Chapter 5 지정은행 및 은행간 상환약정 ······································159

제12조 지정···············································161

Case 05-01 대금지급 금지명령이 발행되어도 선지급을 행한 지정은행이

발행은행에게 독립적인 상환청구권이 있는지 유무 ·················162

Case 05-02 “당 은행에 의하여 인수함”이라는 문언이 은행의

연지급확약 사실 반영 여부····················································166

제13조 은행간 상환약정······································169

Case 05-03 유효기일 경과 이후의 대금상환청구에 대한 상환은행의

지급의무················································································173

Case 05-04 신용장 대금상환 지연에 따른 이자부담자······························175

― Chapter 6 서류심사의 기준 및 불일치서류에 대한 권리포기 ·········179

제14조 서류심사의 기준······································181

Case 06-01 원산지증명이 송장명세의 물품과 연계성이 없는 경우

불일치로 보는지 여부 ··························································191

Case 06-02 운송서류, 보험서류 또는 상업송장 이외의 서류가 기재사항이

누락된 경우 불일치의 판단기준·············································192

Case 06-03 서류상의 기재사항 누락에 따른 불일치 주장의 타당성··········197

Case 06-04 물품중량 단위 표시 상이에 따른 불일치 여부에 대한 판단기준···200

Case 06-05 발행의뢰인의 주소가 착화통지처로 표시된 경우 신용장 명시와

동일해야 하는지 여부 ····························································203

Case 06-06 신용장에 요구하지 않은 기재 사항을 수익자가 신용장 또는

송장과 서로 다르게 기재한 경우의 수리성 ···························205

Case 06-07 운송선박 관련 비서류적 조건이 선화증권에 명시하도록

요구할 권한이 있는지 유무····················································207

Case 06-08 최종 선적일 참조를 포함하고 있는 신용장은 비서류적

요건에 해당되는지 여부·························································208

Case 06-09 신용장에 부가된 비서류적 특수조건의 효력 ···························210

Case 06-10 제시서류의 불일치에 대한 발행은행의 지급거절의 타당성 ·····212

Case 06-11 상업송장과 신용장에 기재된 단위의 불일치가 지급거절

사유가 되는지 여부·······························································216

Case 06-12 제시서류와 신용장조건과의 일치여부를 심사하는 기준시점····217

제15조 일치하는 제시········································219

Case 06-13 매입신용장 하에서 발행은행의 의무 ······································221

Case 06-14 근거계약 또는 신용장에 요구되지 아니한 사항에 대한

제시의 인수･거절···································································223

제16조 불일치서류, 권리포기 및 통지···························227

Case 06-15 서류의 불일치에 대한 통지를 행하지 아니한 발행은행의

지급거절의 타당성·································································232

Case 06-16 발행은행의 의무불이행에 따른 영향 및 이자청구의 기산일 ····235

Case 06-17 불일치 사항에 대한 발행은행의 최초 통지 및 후속 통지의 효력···237

Case 06-18 발행의뢰인의 권리포기 접수가 발행은행의 서류수리에

구속되는지 여부····································································238

Case 06-19 지급이 상환청구 불능조건인 경우 은행의 초과 지급금액의

반환청구권·············································································240

Case 06-20 신용장에 의한 제시서류 불일치 통지와 지급거절의 정당성 ····242

Case 06-21 발행은행 등의 일괄하자통지의무는 통지 당시 존재하던

하자에 대해서만 적용되는지 여부··········································247

Case 06-22 최초에 명시하지 아니한 새로운 하자를 주장하여 신용장

대금지급을 거절할 수 있는지 여부········································248

Case 06-23 신용장 대금의 지급거절시 발행은행의 서류반환범위··············250

Case 06-24 지급의무가 없을 경우 발행은행의 제시서류 반환의무 및

불일치통지 위반의 효과·························································251

― Chapter 7 원본서류 및 사본 ························································255

제17조 원본서류 및 사본·····································257

Case 07-01 원본서류상에는 반드시 “원본”이라는 단어가 표시되어야

하는지 여부···········································································262

Case 07-02 복사, 자동화 또는 전산화된 시스템 또는 복사지에 의하여

작성된 서류의 원본서류 요건 ················································263

Case 07-03 온라인으로 확인될 수 있는 참조사항을 포함하고 있는

원산지증명서의 원본 수리성 ··················································264

Case 07-04 원본전통 제시를 요구하는 신용장에서 두 번째 및 세 번째

선화증권의 원본표시가 없는 경우의 수리 여부······················266

Case 07-05 신용장거래에서 “원본”서류의 개념과 판단기준·······················267

Case 07-06 추가서명 없이 복사본에 스탬프로 “원본”이라고 표시한

검사증명서의 원본인정 여부 ················································269

― Chapter 8 상업송장 ·····································································271

제18조 상업송장············································273

Case 08-01 송장상의 물품명세와 신용장조건상의 물품명세와의 일치 여부···276

Case 08-02 신용장상의 물품명세와 상업송장상의 물품명세와의 일치 여부···278

Case 08-03 상업송장 및 선화증권에 추가물품이 무상선적된 것으로

표시된 경우의 일치성 판단····················································281

Case 08-04 신용장과 상업송장의 일치성 판단기준···································284

Case 08-05 상업송장의 물품명세가 일부 일치, 일부 불일치한 경우

일치된 물품 해당금액만 지급할 수 있는지 여부····················286

― Chapter 9 운송서류 ····································································289

제19조 적어도 두 가지 다른 운송방식을 표시하는 운송서류···········291

Case 09-01 미리 인쇄된 문언에 의한 복합운송서류의 본선적재부기

관련 해석과 수리요건 ····························································298

Case 09-02 수령장소, 적재항, 양륙항 또는 인도장소로 명시된 도시에

추가로 국가명칭 기재의 필요성·············································300

Case 09-03 선적항 및 수탁지가 달리 명시된 선화증권의 수리가능성·······303

Case 09-04 해상선화증권을 요구하였으나 복합운송선화증권 등의

다른 명칭을 사용한 선화증권의 수리 여부·····························305

제20조 선화증권···········································307

Case 09-05 운송인 자신의 명칭을 운송인의 대리인으로 서명한

운송서류는 불일치로 보는지 여부 ········································314

Case 09-06 신용장에 명시된 적재항에서 지정선박에 본선선적 사실이

명확하게 기재하지 아니한 선화증권 ······································318

Case 09-07 본선적재 부기일자가 선화증권 발행일자와 관계없이

“B/L date”로 간주될 수 있는지 여부······································320

Case 09-08 하나의 적재항에 두 개의 선박명이 기재되어 있는 선화증권···321

Case 09-09 적재항 또는 양륙항이 모두 실제 항구가 아닌 해상선화증권···322

Case 09-10 신용장 부가조건에 선화증권 대신 수익자 발행의 보상장 제시

허용 이후 보상장 수신인 관련 발행은행의 대금상환 거부·····324

Case 09-11 선화증권상의 수탁자 및 선적항란의 기재장소가 같은 경우,

본선적재표기상에 선적항과 선박명 표시의 필요성 유무 ·······326

Case 09-12 수취선화증권의 본선적재표기의 요건과 충족 여부의 판단기준···327

Case 09-13 선화증권에 지정 선박의 본선적재와 관련하여 요구되는 조건····328

제21조 비유통 해상화물운송장·································329

Case 09-14 비유통 해상화물운송장에 발행일자 불표시가

불일치서류를 구성하는지 여부···············································336

제22조 용선계약 선화증권····································339

Case 09-15 운송서류에 “charter party”라고 표시된 경우 용선계약

선화증권으로 취급될 수 있는지 여부 ·····································344

Case 09-16 “용선계약 선화증권 수리가능”과 “약식선화증권

수리불가능”이라는 조건이 불일치를 구성하는지 여부············347

Case 09-17 사전 인쇄된 문언에 의한 본선적재 표시, 발행일자가

적재기간이 완료일자 이후인 용선계약 선화증권의 수리성 ·····348

Case 09-18 선화증권의 정당한 소지인이 아닌 자에게 인도함으로써 선화증권

소지인의 운송물에 대한 권리를 침해한 경우의 책임 ··············349

제23조 항공운송서류········································352

Case 09-19 “Master Air Waybill” 대신에 “House Air Waybill”제시 이유로

거절할 수 있는지 여부 ··························································358

Case 09-20 “운송인 또는 운송인의 대리인에 의하여 서명”되었다는 사실을

증명하고 있지 아니한 항공화물운송장의 수리 여부 ··············360

Case 09-21 항공화물운송장 수리를 위한 UCP 요건의 충족여부

판단 기준 및 방법·································································361

제24조 도로, 철도 또는 내수로 운송서류·························364

Case 09-22 CMR 운송서류의 명칭 및 서명에 대한 일치성 및 서식란의

기재·······················································································370

Case 09-23 CMR 서류는 발송인 또는 수령인의 서명이 있어야만 하는지

여부·······················································································371

Case 09-24 국제화물수탁서상에 “copy for shipper”라는 문언이

포함되거나 표시되어야 하는지 여부 ·····································372

제25조 특사수령증, 우편수령증 또는 우송증명서···················375

Case 09-25 서명란이 없을 경우 서명되지 아니한 특사수령증의 일치성·····377

Case 09-26 발송일자가선적일이전인DHL 영수증원본이신용장에서요구한

선적통지 증거로서의 DHL 영수증 원본에 부합되는지 여부····378

제26조 갑판적재, 송화인의 적재 및 계수, 송화인의 내용물 신고 및

운임에 대한 추가비용·································380

Case 09-27 용선계약 선화증권의 사전 인쇄된 문언에 “품질, 수량, 용적을

알 수 없음”이라는 문언이 있는 경우의 일치성 여부··············382

제27조 무사고 운송서류······································384

Case 09-28 “open top container”라고 선화증권에 표시되어 있을 경우

사고부 선화증권으로 간주되는지 여부···································385

― Chapter 10 보험서류 ···································································387

제28조 보험서류 및 담보범위·································389

Case 10-01 보험중개인(broker)에 의하여 서명된 보험서류의 수리 여부····399

Case 10-02 선적일자보다 늦은 일자의 보험서류와 “창고간 담보조건”의

적용 ·····················································································401

Case 10-03 보험담보금액의 110%는 준수되어야 하는지 여부···················404

Case 10-04 보험부보 금액은 소수점 이하 둘째 자리 수까지 계산하는

것이 국제표준은행관행인지 여부···········································407

Case 10-05 신용장이 보험담보 비율을 특정하지 아니한 경우, CIF 또는

CIP 가액의 110% 이상이면 적격한지 여부 ···························409

Case 10-06 회사의 인장으로 변경 인증한 보험서류의 적격성···················410

Case 10-07 적화보험증권에 기재된 도착지와 신용장에서의 도착지가

다른 경우의 보험증권의 수리가능 여부·································412

Case 10-08 보험서류의 피보험자나 배서의 여부에 대하여 신용장에

명시되지 않은 경우의 보험서류 피보험자 및 배서 관계·········413

― Chapter 11 신용장의 유효기일, 과부족 허용, 분할어음발행 및 선적 ···415

제29조 유효기일 또는 제시를 위한 최종일의 연장··················417

Case 11-01 제시은행의 표지서류에 신용장 유효기일 내에 제시가

이루어졌음을 증명하지 않으면 거절사유가 되는지 여부·········419

Case 11-02 신용장에서 매입이 선적일자로부터 특정기간 이후로 명시된 경우

그 기간 이전에 매입시의 지급 여부······································421

Case 11-03 환어음을 포함하여 불일치한 서류를 보완하여 재제시하는 경우

신용장의 제시기간과 유효기간을 모두 준수해야 하는지 여부····423

Case 11-04 서류가 유효기일의경과 후 발행은행에송부된 경우, 제시은행의

표지서류로 유효기일 내에 제시됨을 인정할 수 있는지 여부···426

Case 11-05 하자 없이 매입한 서류를 매입시점으로부터 상당기간 지연

되었다는 사정만으로 발행은행 지급거절의 타당성 여부·········427

제30조 신용장금액, 수량 및 단가의 과부족 허용···················430

Case 11-06 신용장금액의 허용한도(tolerance)와 환어음 발행금액·············432

Case 11-07 전체금액 및 총수량에 대한 과부족이 일부 수량에도

적용가능한지 여부·································································434

Case 11-08 신용장대금 항목의 과부족 규정과 부가조건에 신용장 금액의

자동증감 규정의 적용 ····························································437

제31조 분할어음발행 또는 선적································439

Case 11-09 동일한 선박으로 하나이상의 양륙항이 명시되었을 경우

분할선적 금지조건의 위반 여부·············································441

Case 11-10 선적수량 조건은 분할선적란 또는 부가조건란이 아닌 신용장

어느 곳이라도 명시가능한지 여부··········································443

제32조 할부어음발행 또는 선적································446

Case 11-11 분할선적이 허용과 할부선적 요건의 미준수 ···························447

제33조 제시시간···········································449

Case 11-12 은행의 무역부서의 은행영업시간 외에 이루어진 제시············449

Case 11-13 지급거절을 통지할 수 있는 종료시기로서의 은행영업일

종료시기의 의미····································································451

― Chapter 12 은행의 면책 ······························································453

제34조 서류의 효력에 대한 면책·······························455

Case 12-01 선화증권 서명이 위조된 것으로 확인될 경우 은행의 상환청구

가능 여부··············································································458

Case 12-02 수익자의 반출지시서 사본의 물품명세를 일부 정정한 경우,

반출지시서 사본의 정규성과 상태성에 대한 효력···················459

제35조 송달 및 번역에 대한 면책······························461

Case 12-03 일치하는 제시서류 송달중 분실된 경우 발행은행의

인수･지급 의무······································································464

Case 12-04 원본서류 송달중 분실된 경우의 책임관계······························465

제36조 불가항력···········································468

Case 12-05 불가항력사태에 기인하여 은행업무 중단 경우 확인은행의

확약도 종료되는지 여부·························································470

제37조 피지시인의 행위에 대한 면책····························473

Case 12-06 발행은행 국가 이외 발생 모든 수수료의 수익자 부담조건 및

부담금액 또는 비율의 범위····················································476

Case 12-07 매입은행의 항공우편에 의한 서류송부의 신용장 지시사항을

어기고 특사서비스로 송부한 경우의 지급 여부······················478

― Chapter 13 양도가능신용장 및 대금의 양도 ·································481

제38조 양도가능신용장······································483

Case 13-01 통지은행이 미확인인 조건으로 신용장을 양도하는 것이

정당한지 여부 ········································································493

Case 13-02 신용장이 양도된 경우 제1수익자의 위험 및 양도된

신용장 발행시의 변경될 수 있는 조건···································494

Case 13-03 양도가능신용장의 변경사항에 대한 제1수익자 앞으로의

원신용장 조건변경 요청·························································497

Case 13-04 제1수익자가 제2수익자의 “가격 및 원산지 복합증명서”를

자신의 것으로 대체할 수 있는지 여부 ···································498

Case 13-05 신용장 양도통지문상의 수익자의 명칭 및 주소와 상업송장 등

나머지 서류상의 기재가 상이한 경우, 불일치로 간주되는지

여부·······················································································500

제39조 대금의 양도·········································501

Case 13-06 취소불능 지급지시 위임장을 받은 은행의 권리와 의무··········503

Case 13-07 대금의 양도는 양수자에게 통지 없이 조건변경이나 수정이

가능한지 여부 ·······································································505

― 부 록 ························································································507

1. 화환신용장 서류심사를 위한 국제표준은행관행(ISBP 681) ··········509

2. 전자적 제시를 위한 UCP의 추록(eUCP) 버전1.1 ·················579

찾아보기··············································· 589